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Overview оf Seborrheic Dermatitis Treatments

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Seborrheic dermatitis іs аn inflammation оf thе skin іn areas rich іn sebaceous glands lіkе thе scalp, face, chest, аnd bасk. Тhеrе аrе dіffеrеnt саusеs cited fоr thіs disorder аs thе exact саusе іs unknown. Тhіs problem mоstlу аffесts infants аnd people аbоvе 30 years оf age. Stress,  Dry  whether  and  Neurological  and  psychiatric  disorders   are  know  to  make the  disorder  worse.  The  cause   seem  to involve  combination  of   elements  including  skin  inflammation,  reaction to  a  fungus   called  malssezia  furfur  and  emotional  influence. Моst treatments aim аt reducing thе symptoms using  steroidal  creams  (less  desirable)  or  non  steroidal   compounds   such  as  Sulfur /Salicyl  Ointment  or  SebaClear  . (More  desirable.)

Seborrheic Dermatitis Treatments in Children

Pediatricians generally advise parents nоt tо worry аbоut thіs problem аs іt disappears wіth time. Ноwеvеr, tо reduce thе symptoms, уоu соuld follow thе simple tips gіvеn below.

• Massage thе scalp wіth oil. Тhіs will help tо loosen thе scales аnd will help thеm tо соmе оff easily. Аftеr а fеw hours, wash оff wіth shampoo.
• Clean thе scalp оf уоur baby frequently wіth а mild shampoo. Тhіs will kеер thе scalp оf уоur baby clean аnd free frоm oil, dirt, аnd bacteria.
• If thе problem persists fоr long, thеn consult уоur doctor. Dermatologists  can  will prescribe a  sulfur /salicyl ointment tо reduce thе skin inflammation.

Seborrheic Dermatitis Treatments in Adults

• If уоu аrе suffering frоm Seborrheic Dermatitis, уоu shоuld shampoo  your  scalp  frequently. Υоu shоuld clean thе аffесtеd areas sо thаt thеrе іs nо deposition оf sweat аnd oil; оthеrwіsе thе skin mау harbor bacteria and fungi, whісh worsens thе situation. Υоu shоuld tаkе а bath аftеr outdoor activities lіkе playing аnd exercising.
• One оf thе main саusеs оf thіs skin problem іs thе fungus, Malessizia. Usе оf anti fungal ointments аnd mild topical steroids саn reduce thе occurrence оf thіs fungus. A  new  type  of  steroid  free  solution SebaClear (or  Sebacare100)  have  proven  in multiple  dermatological studies  high  efficacy  in the treatment  of  seborrheic  dermatitis  in the face  scalp  and  chest.
• For treating thе scalp, уоu shоuld usе medicated shampoos соntаіnіng salicylic acid, selenium sulfide, coal tar, оr pyrithione zinc. Κеер thе shampoo оn thе hair аnd thе scalp fоr 3 tо 5 minutes bеfоrе rinsing іt оff wіth water. Usе thе shampoo twісе оr thrice а week оr аs prescribed bу thе doctor.
• For people suffering frоm thick scales, іt іs essential tо massage thе scalp wіth a  sulfur/salicyl onitment  bеfоrе washing hair wіth shampoo.
• The usе оf cosmetics, hair sprays, аnd perfumed creams аrе best avoided.
• In а fеw cases, thе intake оf antibiotics mау bе required tо treat thіs problem.
• UV-A аnd UV-B саn bе usеd tо reduce thе еffесt оf Seborrheic dermatitis.

The problem mіght nоt gеt completely cured еvеn аftеr treatment. Маnу people experience reoccurrence оf thе symptoms. Ѕо іt іs essential thаt уоu  usе аn anti-dandruff shampoo аt lеаst three times  а week еvеn аftеr completing thе treatment  and  suppress  seborrheic  tendency using  a  steroidal  free  solution or  ointment on a daily  basis.

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Leishmania Caused By Sand Flies – Best Tips

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Leishmania-

Sand flies are tiny, blood-sucking flies which sting exposed skin, especially of the face, arms and legs.  Since the female begins to hunt for prey at sunset, most bites occur at night.  In most cases the bites are slight, itch for several hours and gradually disappear.

The bite of the sand fly is only dangerous in the region of the Dead Sea, Israel.  There the flies bear a parasite called Leishmania, which causes an ulcerous disease generically called Leishmaniasis.  If the parasite is transmitted to humans, after several weeks a purulent ulcer can develop which remains for months and eventually leaves a scar.  Since a sand fly cannot fly higher than 20 centimeters (8 inches) from the ground, anyone sleeping in the region of the Dead Sea should sleep on a bed or on a raised platform.  Trousers and long sleeved shirts should be worn at night and an insect repellent should be used.

TREATMENT

The treatment for the bites of regular sand flies is the same as for mosquito bites.  If a purulent lesion develops, a dermatologist should be consulted immediately to prevent the development of Leishmaniasis.  Early treatment of the disease, either by injections or the use of creams and ointments especially formulated to combat Leishmaniasis, can prevent the formation of scars after the lesions have healed.

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Bed Bugs and Fleas – Best Tips

BEDBUGS

Bedbugs are usually found in old buildings which are not well cared for.  Bedbugs are wingless, red-brown in color, an need moisture. During the day they hide in beds, under carpets and rugs, in the cracks in old furniture and in walls.  At night they leave their hiding places in search of food: human blood.  In most cases their bites are only perceived the following morning, the marks forming straight lines of red dots.  If the person bitten is particularly sensitive, the itchy red spots can last for several weeks.  In addition to treating the bites themselves with ice and soothing creams and lotions, the bedbugs should be destroyed, and if necessary an exterminator should be called to fumigate the furniture.

TREATMENT

The same treatment is recommended the bites of bedbugs as for mosquito bites.

FLEAS

These insects are parasites, usually living on mammals and birds.  House pets like cats and dogs can serve as their natural breeding grounds.  Humans are rarely affected by fleas, and then only when the animal is very heavily infested.

Fleas often remain on the rugs or sofas where pets sleep, and if their usual host is absent they will exploit humans to insure their food supply.  Fleas are also found on lawns and in sandboxes where infested animals have been.  Flea bites generally appear as swollen, very itchy red spots, concentrated on the legs, usually during hot weather and most frequently on children.  Whenever such a concentration of red spots is found, the pet and the area around the house should be examined carefully, and anti-flea measures taken.  The cat or dog should wear an anti-flea collar, which will keep the pet free of fleas as long as the collar is worn.

TREATMENT

The same treatment is recommended flea bites as for mosquito bites.  Flea bites will continue until the fleas have been gotten rid of.

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Bees And Wasps Stings – Best Tips

Bees And Wasps Stings-

Only the female bee has a sting, which is located at the end of its abdomen.  When a bee stings it injects poison into the flesh of its victim, causing an irritation.  A person who has been stung by a bee experiences local pain, redness and swelling for about 48 hours.  On clear, sunny days when there are many flowers in bloom, it is highly unlikely that a bee will sting a human being.  However, when it is cloudy, a person wearing bright colors, especially red or yellow, is liable to attract a bee’s attention.  They usually sting if they are annoyed or feel that they are in danger.  Wasps, on the other hand, usually attack if their nests are approached; they should therefore be left alone.  If bees or wasps have built a nest near your house in a hollow tree or a recess in a wall, call a professional exterminator to destroy it.

TREATMENT

Bee stings, with their poison sacks, remain in the skin, and must be removed as quickly as possible.  Wasps, on the other hand, retain their stings and can therefore sting again.

WARNING!  Squeezing a bee sting can drive the poison further into the skin.  It is preferable to try to remove the sting with a needle, knifepoint or fingernail.

Bee and wasp stings should be washed with soap and water, and ice can be used to relieve pain.  As soon as a bee stings, it releases a chemical substance which attracts other bees to the area, so that one sting can be the cause of dozens more.  Spreading smoke, for instance by waving burning cigarettes in the air, can repel angry bees and prevent further stings.

Applying an anesthetic like benzocaine or a cream containing cortisone can relieve pain for a short time.  If there are multiple stings an antihistamine should be taken orally to alleviate itching and reduce swelling.  Remember that some of these drugs contain substances which can reduce alertness, and therefore they should not be taken while driving a car or engaging in any other activity which requires alertness or concentration.

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Corner of the Mouth Skin Infections – Causes and Treatment

Hair and skin info and tips from a leading board certified dermatologist

INFECTIONS AT THE CORNERS OF THE MOUTH

Redness and a white discharge at the corners of the mouth are a common occurrence in older people.  The main causes of this condition are a change in the structure of the mouth as a result of the loss of teeth and the sagging of the cheek muscles.

A fungus infection called Candidiasis can grow in the moisture which accumulates in the wrinkles at the corners of the mouth.  It causes redness, a discharge and itching.  The infection is worsened by over-salivation, taking broad spectrum antibiotics, and B vitamin and iron deficiencies.

TREATMENT

The first stage is assuring dental treatment which will remove the fundamental cause of the infection, and giving vitamin and iron supplements if necessary.  Anti-fungal and anti-bacterial medications containing steroids should be applied to the skin.  Once the infection has disappeared, a fat-based ointment should continue to be applied to the corners of the mouth.

 

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Sun Damage – Best Three Defense Lines

Is the  sun  bad  for  us ?

1)Some sun-induced damage can be corrected simply by protecting the skin.  More than any other organ of the body, the skin preserves its ability for renewal and self-repair.  The upper layer, the epidermis, replaces most of itself every month. In addition, the skin contains enzymes which repair damage to the DNA of the cells and to the collagen caused by ultraviolet radiation.  In America a study was done by a researcher named Barbara Gilchrest, in which she compared the decrease in number of wrinkles in a large group of women who had used a preparation containing an anti-wrinkle substance (retinoic acid) to a group of women who avoided the sun and used a simple moisturizing cream.  According to the results, the skins of the women who avoided sun exposure but used no other means than a moisturizer also showed a reduction in the signs of sun damage including a reduction in the numbers of fine wrinkling.

2)The development of sun-induced skin cancer has two stages.  During the first stage, ultraviolet radiation injures the cell’s nucleus and causes a primary mutation in the genetic material.  The second stage occurs after ten or twenty years, and involves an additional change which causes a reaction in the impaired genetic material which in turn leads to the cell’s uncontrolled growth and the development of cancer.  Today it is known that improved sun protection will guard the body’s entire immune system.  The conclusion to be drawn from these data is that cancer develops in two stages and both related to the sun.  This first stage can be prevented by protecting a child’s skin from the sun, and the second stage can be prevented, at least partially, by continued protection in later years, in fact, throughout a person’s life.

IS THERE A RIGHT WAY TO SUNTAN ?

Practicing dermatologists like myself do not want to frighten you into having nightmares or to deprive you of the pleasures of life.  It is helpful if you view prevention of sun damage as a battle having certain lines of defense, and to form new habits incorporating these lines.  The first line of defense is to plan outdoor activities during the hours when the sun’s rays are weakest; the second is to choose naturally shady areas and to wear a hat and suitable clothing; the third is regular use of a sunscreen.

The First Line of Defense: Planning the Hours for Exposure to the Sun

It is wisest to plan outdoor activities during the hours when the sun’s rays are weakest; tennis lessons, gardening and trips to the beach or swimming pool should be scheduled for the early morning hours or the evening when it is cool and pleasant outside.  Sun damage is cumulative, and over a period of years the exposure you get just by walking in the sunshine for 10 minutes from one building to another during your lunch break and by working in the garden under a burning summer sun for half an hour causes irreparable damage to the skin.  If you live in a sunny area you should avoid exposure to the sun between the hours of 10 in the morning and 4 in the afternoon in so far as possible, since these are the hours when the sun’s rays are strongest and most direct.

Trips to the beach should be planned for the hours before 10 and after 4, and that includes summer camps and vacations.  Those who understand the dangers spend the hot humid hours in the shade or where there is air-conditioning and go to the beach only when the sun begins to set.

Tanning parlors should be avoided.  Today we know that artificial suntanning can cause skin damage as severe as and more severe than skin damage caused by the rays of the sun.  Fair skinned people who seek darker tanned skin should keep in mind that individuals who can’t tan in natural sunlight won’t be able to tan under a sun lamp!

The Second Line of Defense: Staying in the Shade and Wearing Proper Clothing

Anyone staying outdoors should seek the protection of a sunshade, either artificial, such as a sun umbrella, or natural, such as a tree or a high building.   Remember that a significant amount of the sun’s rays is reflected back by the air, the sand and the water of the sea or the swimming pool, and by bright surfaces such as concrete or snow.  It is recommended that you wear a wide-brimmed hat which will protect your face, neck and throat from the sun’s rays.  Front windshields of cars are now manufactured of special glass which blocks 90% to 95% of the sun’s ultraviolet rays.  The side windows are made of thinner glass and block only about 70%.  Since their protection is not complete, you should be sure to use a sunscreen when planning a long trip by car, even if the car is air conditioned.  People who are especially sensitive can buy special plastic UV filters  which can be attached to the windshields for extra protection.

You should wear sunglasses which block the sun’s ultraviolet rays in order to protect your eyelids and the sensitive skin around your eyes.  The correct use of sunglasses is also important in protecting the eyes themselves against ultraviolet radiation.  Ophthalmologists have long since shown that when the eyes are directly exposed to the sun’s rays, especially at a young age, there is an increased risk of cataracts in later life.

HOW MUCH PROTECTION DO WE GET FROM OUR CLOTHING?

The data in this table show the great differences in the amount of protection afforded by various kinds of clothing.  A child wearing a thin white T-shirt absorbs 16% of the radiation he or she would absorb by being completely naked.  When the shirt is dry, its protection is three times greater.  Therefore it is advisable to wear clothing even in the shade.  During summer it is worthwhile to wear a dark-colored shirt of closely-woven material. Fair skinned people or individual with photosensitivty may use specially dasigned sun protective clothes made from special fabrics.

The Third Line of Defense: Sunscreens

It is definitely recommended that every fair-skinned person apply a sunscreen in the morning and afternoon, all year long.  Every person should apply a sunscreen to the exposed areas of the body, using one with a sun protection factor (SPF) of between 15 and 30.  The day is not far off when the use of sunscreens will become a personal hygiene habit as common and as regular as brushing teeth.

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Insect Bites – What Should I Do ?

Insect  Bites-

There are more than a million different kinds of insects in the world.  An insect is a six-legged animal with two antennae, generally possessing a rigid exoskeleton and often winged.  Among the insect family are classed the various kinds of ants, bees, roaches, fleas, bedbugs, lice, mosquitoes and various kinds of flies.  Many of them are unwanted guests in our homes.  Some of them are not injurious to man, others are annoying, and there are some which can endanger human life.  During the summer, contact with insects is more intensive.  We leave doors and windows open and stay outside for many hours, either on trips in the countryside or just sitting on the porch or in the garden.  Being aware of insect behavior patterns can help us protect ourselves and in most cases avoid bites and stings.

INSECT STINGS (BITES)

A sting is a small puncture wound.  The insect stings its victim to obtain the blood on which it lives.  The organs of its mouth are constructed in such a way as to allow them to penetrate the skin.  The sting causes itching, an allergic reaction to substances in the insect’s saliva which is injected into the skin when the insect feeds.  Some insects secrete various substances around the area of the sting, and scratching makes them penetrate.  Different people react differently to insect bites.  People who live in the same house and are exposed to the bites of the same mosquitoes do not necessarily react in the same way.  Some will experience a small number of bites and suffer only slightly while others will be stung many times and suffer for days or even weeks.  In a small percentage of cases bites scratched with dirty fingernails become infected.  If this happens, it is advisable to consult a physician, who will prescribe an antibiotic ointment.  Much more serious are insects whose bite introduces disease-bearing organisms into the body, such as the Anopheles mosquito, which carries malaria.

MOSQUITOES

Mosquitoes are a plague in summer.  Since heat and water are an optimal combination for them, all sources of standing water should be destroyed.  Screens on doors and windows are very important in preventing mosquitoes from entering the home.  People who are susceptible to mosquito bites and go on trips or to summer camps where mosquitoes are prevalent should use an insect repellent and wear the proper clothing: long pants, socks and long-sleeved shirts.  The disadvantage of insect repellents is that they evaporate after two or three hours and have to be reapplied.  If they have not been applied thoroughly, there will always be a hungry mosquito who will find a small patch of unprotected skin to light on.  It is only the female mosquitoes who feed on blood; male mosquitoes are vegetarians, living on the nectar of plants,  they pose no problem for humans.  Insect repellents are usually safe for people of all ages.  Anyone unwilling to use a chemical insect repellent can use an electric repellent which emits anti-insect odors into the air, or electric bug-killers which in effect electrocute the flying insects which are attracted to their glowing wires.

TREATMENT

A mosquito bite should not be scratched.  The area should be washed with soap and water and if the bite is very annoying, ice or cold compresses can be used to relieve the pain and to reduce redness and swelling.  Calamine lotion will stop the itch.  Extreme sensitivity at the site of the bite or the discharge of a yellow fluid are sometimes the result of a bacterial infection which has been caused by scratching.  In these cases a physician should be consulted in order to obtain antibiotic treatment.

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Spider Bites Treatment And Prevention Rules

Sider  bite  (Brown  recluse)

Spider Bites Treatment And  Prevention-

Most spiders do not bite and are not at all dangerous.  Exceptions to this rule are the Black Widow spider and the Brown Recluse spider.  The Brown Recluse spider, which has a violin-shaped design on its back, is shy by nature, tending to live in clothes closets, unused dresser drawers and dusty storerooms.  Its bite is usually not felt and is only discovered after about eight hours.  The bite appears as a bluish-white area in whose center is a small and very painful sting.  Around this central area appears a widening red ring which can reach a diameter of 20 centimeters (8 inches) and more.

Since in some cases the central white area can become gangrenous, a dermatologist must be consulted if the bite of a Brown Recluse spider is suspected.  When taking clothes out of storage at the beginning of the summer, remember to shake them out thoroughly in case a Brown Recluse spider is hiding inside.  It is especially important to shake out clothing before getting dressed when camping outdoors, since a Brown Recluse spider may have crawled out from under the rocks and into warm clothing.

WHAT TO DO ?

If the spider which caused the bite can be trapped, bring it with you to your dermatologist or family physician for identification.  Primary treatment includes bedrest, immobilizing the affected area, and moistening the area with a saline solution (two teaspoons of salt disso lived in one liter of water which has been boiled and cooled).  Since the poison of the Brown Recluse spider penetrates the skin rapidly, it cannot be neutralized.  If the central white area does not disappear and becomes numb or develops blisters, the use of oral antibiotics, steroids or a drug called Dapson  should be considered.

ALLERGIC REACTIONS TO INSECT POISONS

Two percent of the population are allergic to insect poisons.  The first sting causes heightened sensitivity.  The second sting, months or years later, can cause rashes which spread over the skin, a sharp drop in blood pressure and breathing difficulties which can lead to choking and death.  Any person who knows that he or she is allergic to insect bites must carry a special syringe at all times containing epinephrine.  This automatic syringe should be used immediately after an insect bite to reduce tissue swelling and prevent the danger of strangulation.  The patient must go to the emergency room of the nearest hospital to receive treatment consisting of steroids (injected or taken orally) in conjunction with antihistamines.  People who are allergic to insect bites and travel to areas without regular medical services should take appropriate medication with them, as prescribed by their family physicians or dermatologists.

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Fungal Skin Infections – What To Do ?

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Fungal Skin Infections-

Fungal  infections of the body caused by dermatophytes are common among children who come into close contact with pets.  These infections appear as scaly flat rings with red edges and pale centers.  The rings grow and cover large areas of the body, including the face.  Since the external symptoms of the infection can be mistaken for other diseases (i.e. psoriasis), dermatophytes should be identified by demonstrating their presence in a culture of the scales.  Incorrect treatment, such as the use of medications containing cortisone, can worsen the infection and cause it to spread to other areas of the body.

Early Treatment-

Early treatment is critical.  Untreated fungus infections spread rapidly and can be transmitted to other members of the family.  Scarring occurs in certain cases, especially if the patient scratches the infected site, or if there is a secondary bacterial infection.  Washing the area with an antifungal soap containing iodine and applying fungicidal creams and ointments are only effective during the early stages of a fungus infection.  In most cases the attending dermatologist will recommend a fungicide taken orally for about two months.  In any event, whenever a fungus infection has been diagnosed it is important to determine its source.  If the source is found to be a family pet, the animal must be treated by a veterinarian.

FUNGAL INFECTIONS OF THE SCALP

The most common form of fungus infections of the scalp is ringworm.  It usually affects children and is only rarely found in adults.  It appears as round areas on the scalp from which the hairs have broken off.  If there is no severe inflammation, the area will be dry and covered with white scales and black dots, which are actually the stumps of the broken hairs.  When a severe inflammation is present, the affected areas are red, swollen and covered with a purulent discharge.  The presence of such an inflammation indicates that the fungus has penetrated into the skin of the scalp, and scarring will occur.  In severe cases there is fever and the lymph glands of the neck are swollen.

There is a less frequent form of fungus infection of the scalp called favus which also primarily affects babies and children.  If not properly treated, the disease can continue into adolescence.  In the presence of favus the hair loses its shine and the scalp turns red, with small, yellow, bowl-shaped scabs clinging to the skin and to the hair.  In certain instances there is an unpleasant odor (reminiscent of mouse’s urine), and sometimes the nails are affected.

TREATMENT

A fungus infection of the scalp can cause irreversible damage to the hair roots, leading to permanent bald patches.  It is therefore important to consult a dermatologist as soon as possible.  Such fungi are extremely infectious, and the patient should be isolated from other children until treatment has begun.  Topical medications and shampoos do not penetrate the skin of the scalp and do not destroy the fungus in the hair follicles.

It is now accepted practice to treat the disease orally.

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Athlet’s Feet Treatment And Prevention Are Possible

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Athletes Feet Treatment And Prevention-

Fungus infections between the toes are very common, particularly in hot countries.  The warmth and moisture produced (between the fourth and fifth toes especially) provide an ideal environment for the development of fungi.They multiply and cause itching, maceration of the skin (the outer layer of the skin absorbs water, turns white and sloughs off); later, painful cracks appear.

Continued wearing of rubber-soled shoes or heavy boots increases the risk of this type of infection.  If left untreated it may spread to the soles of the feet and to the toenails.  Cracks between the toes can provide a source of bacteria which cause a serious skin infection called erysipelas.  Treating this disease in its early stage is simple.  For fifteen minutes every evening, the feet should be soaked in a basin of hot water to which a disinfectant soap containing iodine has been added.

After the feet have been thoroughly dried, a fungicidal cream or ointment should be applied to the soles of the feet and between the toes.  There are many such preparations on the market today, including Agispor, Cicloderm and Myco Hermal.  Treatment should be continued for two to three weeks after the symptoms have disappeared.

Prevent Reinfection-

To prevent reinfection, the feet should be exposed to the air as often as possible.  Cotton socks are preferable; shoes with leather soles (in which the feet perspire less) or sandals should be worn.  Wash the feet often and dust them with talc to absorb perspiration.

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